Sensitive Skin Information
▪ Sensitive Skin Information
▪ Hypoallergenic & Cosmetic Safety Issues
▪ Allergic Reactions
▪ Safety Testing
▪ Beauty on the Safe Side
▪ Sun Protection and Skin Cancer
Sensitive Skin Information
Sensitive skin affects millions of people, but the exact definition varies depending on who you ask. Dermatologist Leslie Baumann, MD, FAAD, director of the University of Miami's Cosmetic Medicine and Research Institute and professor of dermatology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, reports that in her practice up to 50 percent of patients have some form of sensitive skin.
Dr. Baumann explains that there are four distinct types of sensitive skin: acne, rosacea, burning and stinging, and contact dermatitis (this includes allergies and irritants). These skin types all have one characteristic in common: inflammation.
Background on skin care products for sensitive skin
Skin care products marketed for sensitive skin do not specify for which type of sensitive skin they work best — such as acne or rosacea.
For example, a product for an acne patient is very different from a product for a rosacea patient. But, both products will be labeled for use with sensitive skin.
Manufacturers of skin care products cannot make any specific drug claims for treating conditions such as acne or rosacea. Therefore, "sensitive skin" has become a catch-all category for these products.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues monographs for ingredients used in products that allow manufacturers to make certain claims, but not every ingredient will benefit every type of sensitive skin.
For example, the FDA monograph that covers oatmeal allows the manufacturer to claim that this ingredient protects and soothes skin. However, Dr. Baumann reported that oatmeal would not be the best treatment for all types of sensitive skin, but can help contact dermatitis.
Acne is caused by oily skin and high levels of the bacteria P. acnes.
Some skin care products can clog pores, leading to whiteheads and blackheads.
Treatments for acne involve anti-inflammatory ingredients and anti-bacterials, including antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid and retinoids.
One natural ingredient that is used to treat acne is tea tree oil.
Other natural ingredients, such as coconut oil and avocado, can cause acne outbreaks.
Dr. Baumann cautioned acne patients to be careful when selecting products labeled "natural" or "organic," and to ask your dermatologist if you have questions as to whether an ingredient will help your particular type of sensitive skin.
Rosacea is a common skin condition commonly marked by facial flushing, pimples and broken blood vessels on the face.
The cause of rosacea is not completely known, but theories range from bacteria, genetic causes, side effects of sun exposure and vascular instability.
Anti-inflammatory ingredients that do not cause irritation are the mainstay of treatment for this difficult condition. They effectively reduce the redness and inflammation caused by rosacea and prevent facial flushing.
These ingredients include caffeine, sulfur, sulfacetamide, various antibiotics and natural ingredients such as feverfew, chamomile, green tea and licorice extract.
Dr. Baumann advised that skin care products containing vitamin C and alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) should be avoided, as they are acidic and can cause stinging.
Burning and stinging
The cause of burning and stinging is unknown.
Dr. Baumann noted that there are no products that help burning and stinging sensations. That's because the mechanism of why they occur — such as what nerves or skin components are involved — has not been determined through scientific research.
Ingredients that are known to cause stinging are lactic acid, azaelic acid, benzoic acid, glycolic acid, vitamin C and AHAs.
Dermatologists gauge whether a person has this form of sensitive skin by taking a medical history of the patient, and certain tests can be performed to see if a patient has a positive reaction to the known stinging ingredients.
For example, the lactic acid stinging test can be conducted to determine if a patient feels lactic acid when a small amount is placed on the skin. However, this test is complicated by the fact that not everyone stings to lactic acid. For example, some patients who test negatively to lactic acid may sting to benzoic acid.
Contact dermatitis (allergies)
There are two main types of skin irritations in this category.
The first is allergens, which is when you are allergic to an ingredient. For example, when you are allergic to something, your immune system is making antibodies against the thing to which you are allergic and causing the allergic reaction.
The second is irritants, where an ingredient is irritating but you are not truly allergic. For example, if bleach is poured on your skin you will get an irritation from that chemical — but it doesn't mean you are allergic to it.
People who complain of frequent rashes to specific skin care products are most commonly allergic to fragrance, preservatives, colors or formaldehyde.
Dr. Baumann noted that it is difficult to predict who will be allergic, and dermatologists gather clues and make a diagnosis by asking patients questions as to when they notice the appearance of a rash.
For example, a patient may report that she notices a rash whenever she wears eye shadow.
In order to be certain of an allergy to an ingredient, patch testing must be done.
Dermatologists perform patch testing by applying a certain ingredient to the skin and look for a rash to develop within 24 to 48 hours.
Impaired skin barrier (or defects in the protective outermost layer of skin) may increase susceptibility to skin allergies and irritations.
Many organic products lead to contact dermatitis, because they contain essential oils and fragrances that can cause allergy.
For example, patients with a ragweed allergy could develop rashes to organic products that contain chamomile, calendula (marigold extract) and feverfew — as these ingredients are cross reactive ragweed allergies.
Dr. Baumann said that it is a misnomer to call organic products healthier and advised patients to use caution before using products labeled natural or organic.
Dr. Baumann anticipates seeing occasional cases of contact dermatitis to some botanicals found in skin care products.
See your dermatologist for successful diagnosis and treatment of skin, hair and nail conditions.
For More information contact http://www.aad.org
Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduced with prior written permission.
Chemically Safe Information
There has been a great deal of talk about "chemically safe" cosmetics.
In California, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has signed SB484 the
Safe Cosmetics Act of 2005 - the Nation's first state law on chemicals
in cosmetics. Companies will now have to notify the state when they use
chemicals linked to cancer and birth defects.
There are two opposing views regarding "safe" chemicals in personal care
products. Chemists believe that any chemical used in the correct
of a product will not harm you. Therefore when a product is developed,
guidelines on percentages are followed to insure the safety of the
Hypoallergenic and Cosmetics Safety
Information for my clients about HYPOALLERGENIC COSMETICS from:
US Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Office of Cosmetics and Colors Fact Sheet
December 19, 1994; revised October 18, 2000
"Hypoallergenic cosmetics are products that manufacturers claim produce
fewer allergic reactions than other cosmetic products. Consumers with
hypersensitive skin, and even those with "normal" skin, may be led to
believe that these products will be gentler to their skin than
"There are no Federal standards or definitions that govern the use of
the term "hypoallergenic." The term means whatever a particular company
wants it to mean. Manufacturers of cosmetics labeled as hypoallergenic
are not required to submit substantiation of their hypoallergenicity
claims to the FDA".
"The term "hypoallergenic" may have considerable market value on a
retail basis, but dermatologists say it has very little meaning."
Cosemetic Safety Information from:
US Food and Drug Administration
November, 1991; revised May, 1995
"Do the preservatives (in cosmetics) pose any safety risk?"
"According to a study of cosmetic reactions conducted by the North
American Contact Dermatitis Groups, preservatives are the second most
common cause of allergic and irritant reactions to cosmetics. Fragrances
are number one. Although the study is more than 10 years old, the
results can still be considered valid today, says Harold R. Minus, M.D.,
an associate professor of dermatology at Howard University Hospital.
(for More information on this study, see "Cosmetic Allergies" in the
November, 1986 FDA Consumer."
"People who have had allergic reactions to cosmetics may try
hypoallergenic or allergy-tested products. These are, however, only a
partial solution for some and no solution at all for others."
"'Hypoallergenic can mean almost anything to anybody,' says Bailey."
"'Hypo' means 'less than,' and hypoallergenic means only that the
manufacturer feels that the product is less likely than others to cause
an allergic reaction. Although some manufacturers do clinical testing,
others may simply omit perfumes or other common problem-causing
ingredients. But there are no regulatory standards on what constitutes
"Likewise, label claims that a product is 'dermatologist-tested,'
'sensitivity tested,' 'allergy tested,' or 'nonirritating' carry no
guarantee that it won't cause reactions."
"Whether driven by altruism, liability, or the bottom line, most
companies see the need for safety testing. But safety testing can rarely
be mentioned without bringing up the controversy surrounding the use of
animals for those tests."
"Many companies have begun to label their products with statements
indicating that no animals have been used in testing."
"As far as we know,' says Neil Wilcox, D.V..M., director of FDA's Office
of Animal Care and Use, 'what these companies do is use, for the most
part, old reliable ingredients that have proven safe (based on past
animal data and a history of safe use) and then test the final product
"There's kind of a fine point here; says CTFA's McEwen. 'These companies
that say they don't test on animals are skirting the issue. Practically
every ingredient that's used in cosmetics was at some point tested on
animals. Probably a statement like 'no new animal testing; would be more
Beauty on the Safe Side
"Besides never putting on makeup while driving, consumers should follow
other precautions to protect themselves and the quality of their
"* Keep makeup containers tightly closed except when in use."
"* Keep makeup out of sunlight; light can degrade preservatives."
"* Don't use eye cosmetics if you have an eye infections, such as
conjunctivitis, and throw away all products you were using when you
first discovered the infection."
"* Never add any liquid to bring the product back to its original
consistency. Adding water or, even worse, salvia could introduce
bacteria that could easily grow out of control. 'If it has lost its
original texture and consistency,' says McEwen, 'the preservatives have
probably broken down.'"
"* Never share."
"* Throw makeup away if the color changes or an odor develops.
Preservatives can degrade over time and may no longer be able to fight
"'We don't have a hard and fast rule on (when to throw cosmetics out),'
says says McEwen. McEwen says makeup can be kept indefinitely as long as
it looks and smells all right and the consistency doesn't change. 'It
would be difficult to have any kind of bacterial growth and not have it
noticeable,' he explains."
"However, Janice Teal, a microbiologist who heads the product and
package safety divisions of Avon Products, Inc. disagrees. 'Even after
the preservatives have stopped working, you may not be able to see or
smell anything different,' she says."
"She agrees with McEwen that there is no absolute date for discarding
various various products, but says Avon recommends that consumers throw
mascara away after three months. They can keep other makeup products a
few months longer."
"'Mascara is our biggest concern because of the wand,' she says.
'Normally, the eye is a good barrier to bacteria, but one slip and that
wand can scratch the cornea and introduce all kinds of bacteria.'"
Skin Cancer Foundation and Sun
Information for my clients about Year-Round Sun Protection taken from:
Skin Cancer Foundation website,
December 29, 2005
Year-Round Sun Protection
Even during the frigid days of winter it is important to remember sun
protection for outdoor activities. Reflections from the snow can more
than double your danger from the sun’s harmful UV rays. Also, both snow
and strong wind reduce the effectiveness of sunscreen. Your are probably
in the habit of packing sunscreen for a day at the beach or pool. But
the sun is up there 365 days a year, and you need protection much of
that time to reduce your lifetime sun-exposure total. Everyday exposure
counts; you do not have to be actively sunbathing to get a damaging does
of the sun. Practice these sun-protection basics all year round to give
your skin the best chance of long-term health:
Limit time in the sun, regardless of the hour or season.
- Avoid unnecessary sun exposure, especially during the sun’s peak
hours: 10 AM to 4 PM.
- Keep track of the time you spend in full sunlight; do not stay
in an unshaded spot for long stretches of time.
Use a sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher whenever you spend time
Choose a sunscreen with ingredients that block
both UVB and UVA rays.
Apply liberally and evenly to all exposed skin.
The average adult in a bathing suit should use approximately one
ounce of sunscreen per application. Not using enough will
effectively reduce the product’s SPF and the protection you get. Be
sure to cover often-missed spots: lips, ears, around eyes, neck, and
scalp if hair is thinning, hands and feet.
- Be aware, however, that sunlight bouncing off reflective
surfaces can reach you even beneath an umbrella or a tree.
Seek the shade.
Never seek a tan.
- There is no such thing as a healthy tan. A tan is the skin’s
response to the sun’s damaging rays.
Stay away from tanning parlors and artificial
It's Not the Heat...
Temperature is not a good indication of how damaging the sun is. You can
get a powerful dose of ultraviolet radiation even when the usual “heat”
signals are weak. Consider this:
Clouds and Haze. Though clouds keep much of the sun’s heat (infrared
radiation) from reaching the earth, they block as little as 20% of the
harmful UV radiation. Anyone who has gotten a sunburn on a hazy day can
attest to that. If you plan to be outdoors when it is overcast, cover up
and apply sunscreen to all exposed skin.
Latitude. The closer to the equator you are, the more potent the sun’s
rays. That is because they hit the earth more directly for a greater
part of the year. This accounts for the higher skin cancer rates in the
“Sun Belt.” People who live or vacation in southern latitudes should be
especially aware of the need for sun protection.
Altitude. Altitude. Ultraviolet radiation increases 4%-5% with every
1000 feet above sea level. Skiers, hikers, and those living at high
elevations need four-season protection.
Reflection.Water, sand, concrete, and snow are highly reflective
surfaces, bouncing back as much as 90% of the sun’s rays upwards and